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X-chromo some-containing sperms, being heavier than the Y -chromosome-containing sperms (held up and trapped in the Sephadex column), first come out of the Sephadex column and can be preferentially used to fertilize the eggs to produce female babies. Similarly, R. Ericson developed a technique of separation of Y -chromosome-containing sperms by quinacrine staining that can be used to fertilize the egg to produce male babies which has about 80% success. In India, this facility is available in Khar Road, Bombay. Moreover, by chromosome technique (karyotype), the sex of the developing foetus can also be known by drawing some amniotic fluid from the uterus of a pregnant woman which contains the floating foetus cells (by knowing the number presence of X and/or Y chromosomes).


  1. What is biotechnology? Describe its role in medical science giving suitable examples.
  2. Describe monoclonal antibody and its various applications.
  3. Discuss the contributions of biotechnology in the control of diseases.
  4. What is gene therapy? Briefly describe its various approaches.
  5. Discuss briefly the contributions of biotechnology in:

                    i.  Prevention of diseases
                   ii.            Disease diagnosis or early detection of diseases
                  iii.            Disease treatment
                  iv.            Forensic medicine (or DNA fingerprinting)
                   v.            Fertility control

     6.  Write short notes on:

                    i.            Probes in disease diagnosis
                   ii.            Test tube babies
                  iii.            ELISA and immuno PCR in disease diagnosis
                  iv.            Therapeutic agents from genetically engineered organisms
                   v.            Recombinant vaccines
                  vi.            Interferons
                vii.            Babies of specified sex
               viii.            In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer


Fig.1.43 Transduction in E.coli through T2 bacteriophage.

Fig.5.7 Various stages of mitosis.

Fig. 5.12 Meiosis

Fig.6.2 Garden pea plant with flowers and pods.

Fig.6.3 Parts of a flower

Fig.10.13 Role of regulation of gene expression in controlling

differentiation and development of frog.

Fig.10.15 Maternal effect in sexually-reproducing organisms.

Fig.11.11 Chromatic reconstitution experiment of Gilmour and Paul.

Fig12.7 Crown gall disease caused by A.tumefaciens near the junction of root and stem (left)

and callus formation from the cultured transformed-leaf pieces (right).